我们吃植物背后的迷人事实,澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比with Jeff Gillman

| 生长,,澳门威廉希尔

Today's episode dives into some of the interesting facts of the foods we all eat.我的客人,博士。Jeff Gillmanis Director of the UNC Charlotte Botanical Gardens,他最近开始了自己的播客节目。”澳门威廉希尔“我们吃的澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比植物“which features the unique aspects and history of common garden edibles.我们很少考虑,或者甚至意识到,我们在花园里种的一些东西放在盘子里的故事。

As a self-described"澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比plant history enthusiast,“杰夫喜欢探索和分享植物是如何与人联系的,并经过几代人的进化而来。澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比

博士。Jeff Gillman

博士。Jeff Gillman is fascinated by the history behind and little-known facts about our common garden edibles.(照片:杰夫·吉尔曼)

蓝莓

99% of the cropland in the United States is 澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比planted with non-native species.Commercially-grown blueberries is an exception.Although they are native to North America,they weren't cultivated until the early 1900s,当一个小红莓农夫接受挑战时。

Elizabeth White read an academic paper written on the then-surprising discovery that blueberry 澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比plants required acidic soil for health and berry production.因为她的蔓越莓作物也需要土壤酸度,伊丽莎白意识到了一个新的机会,开始寻找并在她的土地上种植不同品种的蓝莓。澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比

一个世纪后,蓝莓已经成为一种受欢迎的可食花园。它们很容易生长,提供美味的作物,它们绚丽的叶子和盛开的花朵一年四季都能引起人们的兴趣。

有三种主要的蓝莓植物——矮灌木(原产于美国北部,通常生长在美国北部)。澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比Highbush(生产市面上最具商业价值的浆果,并且是该国南部各州的常见浆果)and rabbiteye (a smaller berry native to and hardy in the heat and humidity of the southeast).

花园食品-蓝莓灌木

蓝莓花的钟形使它们难以授粉。幸运的是,carpenter bees slit open the flower to steal nectar.这为蜜蜂和其他传粉者提供了机会。

在每一个群体中都有各种各样的世界,所以很容易找到适合你需要的蓝莓植物,无论你在哪里花园。澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比If you add blueberry 澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比plants to your landscape,最好从土壤测试开始,以确定是否需要将pH值降低到适当的酸度。

Jeff's preferred method to acidify soil is adding straight sulfur.要降低土壤的酸碱度需要更长的时间,but the results last much longer and require fewer applications to maintain acidity over time.

Fortunately for us,blueberries are also very pest and disease resistant.我谈到了蓝莓和少数能使它们受害的害虫的话题。一个早期的播客与专家蓝澳门威廉希尔莓种植者,博士。李瑞奇.

Jeff shared some interesting facts about blueberry pollination too.The bell-shape of the blossoms makes it difficult for most insects to reach in to the pollen chamber.木匠蜜蜂解决了这个问题。他们割下一段花以便偷走一些花蜜。If you listen carefully,you can actually hear them slice away the delicate bloom.花粉不会粘在木匠蜂身上,所以他们实际上没有进行任何授粉工作。Yet,这是花瓣结构中产生的裂口,它允许蜜蜂和其他传粉者进入传粉室,并进行果穗所需的传粉。我计划在下个赛季注意这个迷人的活动。

Strawberries

我们在超市种植和购买的草莓不是本地品种。这是一个17岁的法国人在18世纪设计的杂交技术的结果。

在那个世纪中叶,一个法国间谍住在智利,监视一个西班牙敌人。在那里,他喜欢吃智利草莓——一种比他在欧洲见过的任何水果都大的水果。When this spy returned to France,he brought with him six Chilean strawberry 澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比plants – unaware he had in his possession only female plants.Strawberries require male and female 澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比plants to produce fruit.

正是年轻的安托万·杜切斯意识到,他可以将这些雌性植物与本地的小型雄性草莓杂交。澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比他的实验产生的后代很大,美味的水果使他赢得了法国国王的观众,并作为现代草莓之父在历史上占有一席之地。

Strawberries

现代草莓实际上是欧洲的小草莓植物和智利的大草莓的杂交种。澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比

Strawberries are also easy to grow,both in-ground or in containers.主要有三种类型——六月轴承,everbearing and day neutral.每组中有许多品种,所以有很多选择适合你的耐寒区。

If you've grown strawberries,你知道,他们可以非常多产,很容易通过派出跑步者创造新的植物繁殖。澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比What you might not know is that the berry itself is unique in that it is one of the few fruits we eat which is actually the receptacle – the area where the tissue connecting the flower to the 澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比plant swelled after pollination.This is why the seeds are on the outside"“肉”of the strawberry.

Fascinating stuff,正确的?还有更多。

花生

如果没有花生酱,世界会变成什么样子?Did you know it takes 540 peanuts to make a 12-ounce jar?Jeff has done the research,这些都是他在播客中分享的小道消息。澳门威廉希尔

不过,从园丁的角度来看,花生被严重低估了。These legumes are easy to grow,and they are a great nitrogen-fixer to improve soil health.我承认——我也从来没有种过花生。In fact,we didn't even include peanuts as a subject for my first television series – Fresh from the Garden.在这一系列中,each episode covered how to grow and harvest a specific crop,但我们从不吃花生。注意花生会出现在花园农场明年!!

花生植株澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比

花生花“钉住”在土壤表面下播种。(photo: Meg Cowden)

花生起源于秘鲁,被带到非洲,最终来到了美国。他们只受带来他们的南方奴隶的欢迎,直到他们被提供给饥饿的邦联士兵作为蛋白质来源。

As peanut 澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比plants grow,they produce flowers.这些花实际上是通过一个被称为“钉住”)把种子(在花生壳里)放在土壤表面下面。

The reason behind this unique behavior is unknown.There is a theory that the 澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比plant is protecting its seeds.第二,somewhat offbeat theory,is that the 澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比plants – which were originally found growing along streams – were locating their seeds where they were most likely to be caught up by the water and carried to reproduce downstream.

每朵花产生一个花生壳,containing one to three peanuts.生花生被认为是抗营养的。换言之,一旦消费,生花生会与我们体内的维生素结合,防止这些维生素被吸收。然而,一旦花生被烘烤,这些抗营养物质就会消失。boiled or fried.Yes,杰夫报告说你可以炒花生。

花生作物

Each peanut flower produces one peanut shell,which holds one to three peanuts (seeds).(photo: Meg Cowden)

杰夫和我都是煮花生的忠实粉丝。他把盐水放在锅里煮沸,把花生放在沸水中煮4到8个小时。Some people prefer the"al dente"只煮了四个小时的花生,而其他人则更喜欢在烹饪8小时后得到的柔软的稠度。In either case,you can turn the heat on low at the point you consider them perfect and leave them in the warm water for up to 48 hours.

很难找到生花生煮沸,所以我期待着明年我种植这种作物的时候能尝试一下杰夫的方法。

Corn

这个国家种植的玉米只有大约5%是为了我们的饮食乐趣。The rest is used for feeding livestock,making ethanol,以及其他工业用途。The sweet corn we enjoy for dinner is actually a genetic mutation of the species.

也原产于南美洲,玉米是由美洲原住民带到现在的美国。Yet,这种本土作物是我们种植的所有可食用植物中最具工程化和杂交的一种。澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比大多数现代玉米品种都经过基因改造,以提高对害虫的抵抗力。常见于商业性耕作的疾病和除草剂。

现在,两种不同类型的玉米杂交授粉以产生较大的穗是一种常见的做法。The female 澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比plants of one variety will be de-tasseled and,然后,pollinated by tassels from the male 澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比plants of another variety.The resulting corn is larger than the ears produced by either parent.有趣的是,这一更大的规模来自第一代异花授粉。

If corn from that larger ear is 澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比planted,它生产的玉米不会那么大。所以,种植者们一季又一季地进行这种异花授粉过程。

Corn

我们吃的甜玉米实际上是这个物种的基因突变。(photo: Meg Cowden)

Corn is a heavy feeder and takes up a lot of nitrogen from the soil.早期的玉米作物尤其如此。Modern corn has been carefully bred to be more efficient at taking up that nitrogen,所以种植者可以少施化肥。

近年来,Bt细菌已被基因工程改造成玉米,使其对玉米穗虫和其他一些毛虫有更强的抵抗力。其他的基因改良使现代玉米作物对除草剂有抵抗力,such as Roundup,still commonly applied by commercial growers.

Regardless of how you feel about GMO crops,Jeff points out that it's these modifications which have made large,商业化的食品生产——满足我们不断增长的世界人口的需要——是可能的。

有那么多有趣的食物事实,and for me,这些使我在花园里度过的时间更加愉快。我希望这些也激起了你的兴趣。

If you haven't already listened to the 澳门威廉希尔podcast,您可以滚动到页面顶部,然后单击页面标题下绿色栏中的播放图标。杰夫描述了生花生的味道,以及更多关于他的背景,以及为什么食物历史在他的职业生涯中变得如此热情。

玉米秸秆

玉米是一种重饲料——它从周围的土壤中吸收大量的氮。这里看到的是一个三姐妹种植黑豆(一种固氮剂,用来固定土壤中澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比更多的养分)和南瓜藤。(photo: Meg Cowden)

Links & Resources

第051集:如何种植丰富的蓝莓——与李瑞奇合作的关键步骤

乔加德Facebook集团

乔加德Instagram

乔加登特夫YouTube

JoeGardener推特

Growing a Greener World®

Growing a Greener World YouTube

GGW第406集-建立花园

我们吃的澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比植物播客澳门威廉希尔

关于有机园艺的真相:好处,Drawbacks,底线是,by Dr.Jeff Gillman

政府如何进入你的后院:超级杂草,Frankenfoods,草地战争and the (Nonpartisian) Truth about Environmental Politics,Jeff Gillman

解读园艺建议:100条最常见建议背后的科学,作者:Jeff Gillman&Meleah Maynard

The Truth About Garden Remedies: What Works,什么不,为什么?Jeff Gillman

梅格考登

电晕®工具–我们的播客澳门威廉希尔节目赞助商和品牌合作伙伴JoeGeRelnEng.com

About Joe Lamp'l

Joe Lamp'l is the creator and"乔“在Joe Ga澳门williamhillrdener®后面。他毕生的热情和对园艺事业的热爱,使他成为国家有机园艺和可持续发展领域最受认可和信任的人物之一,并长期从事园艺事业。That is most evident in his role as host and creator of Emmy Award-winning Growing a Greener World®,一个国家绿色生活方式系列的PBS目前正在生产的第十季。当他不在自己的大本营工作时,raised bed vegetable garden,他很可能种植或挖东西,澳门赔率和威廉希尔对比或者和家人一起在亚特兰大北部的有机农场度过,GA.

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